Research Paper Series

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Year RPS # Title Author/s
2012 2012-011 (MKTG) STAYING WARM IN THE WINTER: SEEKING PSYCHOLOGICAL WARMTH TO REDUCE PHYSICAL COLDNESS Yan Zhang & Jane L. Risen

The current studies test whether people are motivated to engage in psychologically warm events when they feel physically cold. Study 1 supports the basic prediction by showing that cold participants are especially interested in psychologically warm activities. Study 2 extends the work to real-world behavior and finds that participants are more likely to start relationships in cold weather than end them. Study 3 finds that priming people with the goal of reducing physical coldness led to greater interest in both physically and psychologically warm events. Finally, Study 4 shows that the increased interest in psychologically warm events is reduced when participants anticipate that their motivation to reduce coldness will be met through physical means. We suggest that psychological warmth and physical warmth are perceived as two means for satisfying the same goal of reducing a feeling of coldness.

2012 2012-010 (MO) DOPAMINE GENE, JOB CHARACTERISTICS, AND JOB SATISFACTION: EXAMINING GENE AND ENVIRONMENT INTERPLAY Zhaoli Song, Wen-Dong Li & Richard D. Arvey

This study investigated how gene–environment interplays between the dopamine receptor gene D4 (DRD4) and job characteristics shape job satisfaction. We set forth a preliminary interactional model outlining the impact on job satisfaction of two forms of gene–environment interplay ― correlation and interaction. Using a national sample from the Add Health study, we examined how job complexity and job autonomy mediated the relationship between DRD4 and job satisfaction, identifying gene–environment correlation. We also explored the interactive effects on job satisfaction of DRD4 with job complexity and job autonomy, identifying gene–environment interaction. The results revealed that the DRD4 gene indirectly affected job satisfaction through job autonomy. It also moderated the relationship between job complexity and job satisfaction such that the relationship was more pronounced for individuals with more DRD4 7R alleles. Thus a molecular genetic approach is introduced to organization research for unraveling a relatively comprehensive interplay between the person and the environment.

2012 2012-009 (MKTG) CUMULATIVE ADVANTAGE OF RESEARCH PRODUCTIVITY: HOW LARGE IS IT AND WHO HAS IT? Junhong Chu

The principle of cumulative advantage (CA) or success-breeds-success has been found to apply to the area of research productivity. This paper investigates the magnitude, evolution, determinants, and implications of cumulative advantage in the field of marketing. This study differs from prior literature in that: (1) it is based on a much more comprehensive dataset, covering all standing marketing faculty in the top 150 universities with publications spanning careers ranging from 6 to 34 years, (2) it directly estimates each individual’s cumulative advantage, (3) it accounts for the diminishing returns from cumulative advantage, (4) it computes publishing capacity and simulates the head start effect, and (5) it examines differences across research areas, demographics, and cohorts of graduates. A significant CA effect is found for every researcher, but with diminishing returns. Researchers who see faster productivity growth in their early career years also tend to experience faster productivity decline in their late career years, and the correlation is particularly strong for tiered publications. Researchers have a high capacity for publishing, but their publishing potential is generally far from being fully realized. The cumulative advantage of publishing generates a strong head-start effect for early-career publications. Researchers differ substantially in their ability to do research, and in the rate at which an advantage accumulates and diminishes. These differences are determined largely by an individual researcher’s research area, gender, PhD school rank, PhD training, and country of origin. However, contrary to prior literature, the cumulative advantage of publishing does not lead to growing inequality in productivity over academic age, although there are considerable differences across cohorts of doctoral graduates.
 
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2012 2012-008 (MKTG) A STUDY OF CATEGORY PRICING AT AN ONLINE GROCERY STORE Junhong Chu & Javier Cebollada

As the importance of online grocery shopping increases, both pure-play online grocers and conventional grocers are likely to be interested in setting optimal prices for their online stores. We use a unique household scanner panel dataset to investigate how a grocery retailer with both online and offline stores can set prices in the online store. We observe the same households shopping interchangeably at the online and offline stores of the same grocery chain and investigate their purchase behavior in specific product categories. We find that, across four product categories, these households exhibit lower price sensitivities when shopping online than shopping offline. A household’s price sensitivity is inversely related to distance to the closest physical store. We compute the retailer’s category profit maximizing prices for the online store and explore several alternative pricing schemes that are consistent with the retailer’s current price image. We find that the retailer can substantially increase its profits from online operations by fine tuning its current pricing policy. Given the estimated inverse relationship between price sensitivity and store distance, we investigate an online “zone” pricing as a price discrimination mechanism based on residential location and find the retailer can further improve store profits.
 
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2012 2012-007 (FN) MEASURING LIQUIDITY IN EMERGING MARKETS Wenjin Kang & Huiping Zhang

We propose a new liquidity measure, IlliqZero, which does not require high-frequency data and performs well in all kinds of emerging markets. Combining the virtues of the Amihud ratio and ZeroVol, IlliqZero exhibits higher correlation with effective spread and price impact than other existing low-frequency liquidity measures in most of our sample markets. Based on this new measure, we find that in emerging markets the two most important determinants of liquidity are volatility and volume. Their influences on liquidity are strengthened in more risky and less transparent markets.

2012 2012-006 (S&P) FIRM RESTRUCTURING DURING AN ECONOMY-WIDE SHOCK ACROSS INSTITUTIONAL ENVIRONMENTS Kulwant Singh, Ishtiaq P. Mahmood & Jinyan Zhu

We examine how firms restructure during an economy-wide shock and how the institutional environment affects restructuring and its outcomes. We draw primarily from institutional economics and resource-based theory to argue that access to internal and external resources and the extent of firm embeddedness within the institutional environment are key influences on the incidence and outcomes of restructuring. Results show that firms may increase or decrease restructuring during an economy-wide shock depending on their experience with change and adaptation before the shock, their performance during the shock and their affiliation with business groups. In most cases, restructuring during the shock improved performance. Results are consistent with the view that firm characteristics and institutional environments significantly influence restructuring and its outcomes during an economy-wide shock.
 
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2012 2012-005 (S&P) WHERE CAN CAPABILITIES COME FROM? NETWORK TIES AND CAPABILITY ACQUISITION IN BUSINESS GROUPS Ishtiaq P. Mahmood, Hongjin Zhu & Edward J. Zajac

While strategy researchers have devoted considerable attention to the role of firm-specific capabilities in the pursuit of competitive advantage, less attention has been directed at how firms obtain these capabilities from outside a firm’s boundaries. In this study, we examine how firms’ multiplex network ties in business groups represent one important source of capability acquisition. Our focus allows us to go beyond the traditional focus on network structure and offer a novel contingency model that specifies how different types of network ties (e.g. buyer-supplier, equity, and director ties), individually and in complementary combination, will differentially affect the process of R&D capability acquisition. We also offer an original analysis of how other aspects of network structure (i.e. network density) in business groups affect the efficacy of network ties on R&D capability. Empirically, we provide an original empirical contribution to the capabilities literature by utilizing a stochastic frontier estimation to rigorously measure firm capabilities, and we demonstrate the value of this approach using longitudinal data on business groups in emerging economies. We close by discussing the implications of our supportive results for future research on firm capabilities, organizational networks, and business groups.
 
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2012 2012-004 (S&P) THE EVOLVING IMPACT OF COMBINATORIAL OPPORTUNITIES AND EXHAUSTION ON INNOVATION BY BUSINESS GROUPS AS MARKET DEVELOPMENT INCREASES: THE CASE OF TAIWAN, 1981-2000 Ishtiaq Mahmood, Chi-Nien Chung & Will Mitchell

Business groups are key sources of innovation in emerging market economies, but we understand little about why innovativeness differs across groups and over time. Variation in the density of intra-group buyer-supplier ties, which are common structural linkages among group affiliates, can help explain both cross-sectional and temporal heterogeneity of group innovativeness. We argue that greater buyer-supplier density within a group initially creates combinatorial opportunities that contribute to group innovativeness but ultimately generates combinatorial exhaustion that constrains innovation. Combinatorial exhaustion sets in at lower levels of density as the market environment becomes more developed and the opportunity costs of local search increase. The research introduces a dynamic argument to studies of business group innovation.

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2012 2012-003 (S&P) FAVORITE SONS OR HIRED GUNS: THE SHIFTING BALANCE IN THE FACE OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES Sea-Jin Chang, Young-Choon Kim & Sangchan Park

The CEO succession literature views changes in top managers as an organization‘s adaptive endeavor to match environmental contingencies. However, little attention has been paid to how dynamic market environments shape the way organizations source CEOs and, more importantly, other executives below the level of CEO in an attempt to resolve skill mismatch caused by such environmental changes. To address these gaps, we explore how changes in the product, capital, and labor markets impact the composition of both CEO and non-CEO executives between external versus internal sources. We demonstrate that intensified competition, stronger capital market control, and the development of external labor markets generally promote external talents, while each distinctive environmental condition has differential influence for CEOs and non-CEO executives respectively.

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2012 2012-002 (S&P) THE BOUNDS OF BOUNDARYLESS CAREERS: THE CONTINGENT VALUE OF HUMAN CAPITAL IN JOB MOBILITY Sea-Jin Chang, Young-Choon Kim & Sangchan Park

This study extends the concept of human capital from a concept focused on economic capital to include cultural and social capital in order to examine their respective impact on job mobility. In doing so, this study demonstrates that managers’ interorganizational mobility is not necessarily boundaryless. Rather, there are “bounds” in their career choices, coming from the utilization of their economic, social, and cultural capital, which have been developed through career trajectories and personal backgrounds. These different kinds of human capital are complementary in nature but differ in their respective impact on a person’s mobility beyond industry and business group boundaries. The data of Korean executives’ career trajectories confirm our conjectures.
 
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