Human Resource Driven Turnaround at North Delhi Power Limited: Transition from a Public Entity to a Private Enterprise

Jyotsna Bhatnagar & Debi Saini

The case illustrates how a public sector utility entity with almost no human resource (HR) system in place went on the road of transformation and learning. The case documents areas of transformation from an archaic personnel architecture towards institutionalization of strategic HR system. From file maintenance to strategic partnership, the journey of HR along with top management support and line management involvement is mapped throughout the case. The establishment of a psychological contract acted as the foundation, resulting in commitment and faster adaptation to change. Organizational learning took roots with systemic changes starting from the external customer and later in the internal customer. The role of HR as a strategic partner in this transformation was exemplified as HR enjoys voice and space at the board level of the organization. This case is useful for showing how internal change agents and the active partnership of HR can lead to greater commitment than compliance with top management directives.


Siam Makro Public Limited

Sundar Venkatesh & Ayurzana Puntsagdavaaa

The case provides background to the retail industry as well as excerpts from specialist reports forecasting the evolution of the retail industry in Thailand. The operating and financial data, covering a period of six years, of two companies in the retail industry in Thailand are also given. This case enables students to carry out computations and analyses to make comparisons of the financial performance of the two companies: Big C and Siam Makro Public Limited. Based on the comparisons of the financial performance of two companies within the same industry, students can draw conclusions with regard to the differences in the strategies of the two companies and how these differences affect their performances.


Voice and Data Solutions (India)  

Sumita Mishra & Rajen K. Gupta

VDS Inc., based in California, US, was founded by three Indian entrepreneurs in January 2000. The company provided VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) solutions to wireless, wire line and cable service providers in the US, Europe and recently, Asia. VDS India, based in Noida, India, was established in September 2000 as the offshore product development base of VDS Inc. The product portfolio of VDS Inc. was steadily growing and gaining recognition in the industry. As a result, the product development base in India was becoming more important than ever.  A new CEO, David Joseph was appointed in October 2003 to head VDS India. To standardize work processes to cope with growth in demand and to control attrition rates, David undertook initiatives such as the establishment of a human resources team, setting up of a technical documentation team, the tightening of team processes pertaining to induction and job allocation, and the initiation of organizational processes of employee performance appraisals.
 
David noticed that changes were not easy to implement. Outsourcing of the human resources team and problems of coordination between the technical documentation team and the engineers posed major challenges to David. Integration of communication and information with VDS Inc. also was another area of concern. The case is useful for the examination of human elements in the implementation process.


General Motors China versus Chery: Disputes over Intellectual Property Rights

Liu Shengjun & Juan Antonio Fernandez 

Chery, a Chinese domestic car maker, launched a new mini car model, the QQ in July 2003. This was several months earlier than the planned launch date for General Motor (GM)’s new mini car, the Chevrolet Spark. The QQ looked very similar to the Chevrolet Spark but was priced much cheaper. GM claimed that the Chery QQ was a knockoff of the Matiz, a model owned by GM Daewoo. To make matters worse for GM, Chery was aggressively expanding into other countries where GM had a presence. The case was tailored for illustrating the IPR challenges for multinationals to do business in China.


Amul India: A Social Development Enterprise

Harish Chawla

Amul initiated as an experiment in two villages, collecting 250 kg of milk per day.  As the Cooperative expanded its branches over the course of its 50-year journey, Amul boasts of more than six million kilograms of milk collection daily. 
 
What had initiated as a process of liberation from the Dairy King, brought a revolutionary transformation across the country.  This case provides a vivid example of how a cooperative can become the catalyst for social change and rural development.  This case takes us through the journey of Amul, from its dawn period when it was attempting to take root, through its progression along the enterprise life stages and the associated challenges.  Insights into the quality of leadership and the farmer / management relationships are its defining characteristic.
 
The Amul Model narrowed the gap between the producer and the consumer, connecting the dairy farmer to the consumer through its organic network.  The success of this model ignited interest across India, where this model was replicated, in essence leading to the White Revolution. The case provides sufficient insights and learnings to develop a framework to comprehend the basic essence of a prosperous social enterprise – factors that make it successful.  It is this learning that this case desires to impart to its readership, enhancing interest in this rather lively subject of social enterprises.


The Alang Ship-Breaking Yard

Manoj T Thomas

The case deals with the issue of environmental dumping in the poorer nations by more advanced nations. The trigger for the case is the sending back of the French naval ship Clemenceau from Indian coasts on the grounds that it contained prohibited environmentally hazardous materials like asbestos. The issue raised intense debates both in the public domain and the legal courts.  Environmentalists, who brought the news in the public domain, sought legal intervention and argued in the public media. While the ship was sent back to France following the decision by France’s highest administrative court, it raised questions about the entire ship breaking business.  Alang, where the ship was initially supposed to be broken down, had seen an increase in business owing to the relatively cheap labour and less stringent environmental legislations compared to the established ship breaking centres in Europe and China. As poorer countries with even less regulated ship breaking centres, such as Bangladesh and Pakistan entered the fray, Alang has seen a decline in business. Ship breaking in Alang contributes to employment and the sending away of Clemenceau was seen by many supporters of ship breaking at Alang as lost opportunity for reviving the stagnating business at Alang. Others, however, saw it as an opportunity for Alang to improve environmental compliance and to introduce new technologies in ship breaking so that it can be sustainable in the long run. The case presents these different perspectives and tries to demonstrate the decision dilemma faced by a policy maker or regulator.


Whether or Not to Disinvest: The Case of Gujarat State Fertilizers & Chemicals Limited

Ravmidra H. Dholakia & Shailesh Gandhi

India became independent in 1947. Its central planning model emphasized the development of core sectors of Indian economy through Public Sector Undertakings (PSUs). PSUs played an active role in economic development for more than four decades. The process of liberalization and globalization began in 1991. The Central and State Governments initiated process of disinvestment and decontrol in various PSUs. Gujarat State Fertilizers & Chemicals Limited (GSFC) was one of such PSUs. It was promoted in 1962 by the State Government of Gujarat (GoG) with its 49% equity share, as a joint sector fertilizer company. The objective of the Government was to promote agricultural growth by providing chemical fertilizers and other inputs along with extension services to the farmers. Over the years, it diversified into industrial products. It was also instrumental in promotion of other PSUs in Gujarat through equity participation. It had a strong brand image among the farmers.
 
In 2004, GoG appointed an Expert Committee (EC) to review the performance and sustainability of various PSUs in the State of Gujarat including GSFC and to recommend whether or not the Government should continue to hold its investment in them. The task of EC in providing recommendations on GSFC was very challenging because GSFC incurred losses for the first time during 2000-01 to 2002-03 since its inception but showed dramatic turnaround in 2003-04 and further improved its financial performance in 2004-05 and 2005-06. EC had to reassess the developmental role of GSFC and the need for GoG to continue its involvement. It had to assess the sustainability of improved financial performance in future and decide whether or not GoG should disinvest its stake.


Six Sigma Implementation at Bharti Infotel

Archama Shukla & R. Srinivasan

Bharti Airtel Limited was a leading private sector provider of telecommunication services in India, with a customer base of 8.73 million as on July 2004. The company had two branch companies – Bharti Infotel (that deals with fixed line, long distance, and enterprise services) and Bharti Cellular (that deals with mobile telephone services). This case is about the six sigma implementation at Bharti Infotel.
 
The case briefly discusses the business imperatives in the fast changing Indian telecommunications industry. The industry was a monopoly for over half a century after independence and has recently been deregulated with the private players competing with the state-owned BSNL. The industry has exploded in the recent years with increasing number of players, falling tariffs, and improving technology. Stiff competition in the industry meant that any competitive action by a company was immediately imitated by others. Therefore the only sources of competitive advantage in the industry were “quality of service” and “speed”.
 
This case discusses the various steps in the implementation of six sigma quality management system in the company. The company had already implemented Business Process Management Systems (BPMS) and had begun monitoring their performance on the Non-Financial Parameters (NFPs). The six sigma initiative was expected to leverage on these initiatives. Following the six sigma initiative was the Knowledge Management (KM) initiative that was intended to help share the best practices and learning from the six sigma projects across the entire organization.
 
This case highlights the contribution of the six sigma quality management initiative to the company’s business strategy, and helps students analyze the process of implementing and institutionalizing the six sigma initiative. The case enables the readers to appreciate the business benefits of six sigma implementation and how it fosters innovation.


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