Sustaining a Social Enterprise: Palash Eye Hospital

Debabrata Chatterjee, T.N. Krishnan and Ankita Tandon

Palash Eye Hospital was established with the aim of providing free eye care to the poor and affordable treatment to individuals with paying capacity in Calicut district of the State of Kerala in southern India. Starting as the only specialty eye hospital of its kind in 1999, the hospital had grown over the last 10 years. It was operated on a cross-subsidy model where revenues from paid services were used for providing free treatment and funding expansion plans. The hospital was being managed by Palash Eye Care Trust while its community outreach activities were being handled by Palash Eye Care Society.
With the entry of new commercial eye hospitals in the region, the hospital was facing competition for skilled resources and was falling behind on efficiency. The growth of the hospital was not accompanied with a corresponding development of structures and processes. The hospital was being run on the basis of informal relationships which could not be depended upon to manage a growing enterprise. Administrative control of the hospital lay in the hands of the Trust and Society members and was not shared with the medical staff.  This was resulted in dissatisfaction on part of doctors who wanted to be involved in the hospital administration in order to professionalize and increase hospital efficiency. 
Consequently, a conflict of interests emerged between the Trust and Society members on the one hand and the doctors on the other.  Lack of established operating processes, career growth avenues, and reward and recognition systems was also creating discontent among the paramedical staff. At the same time, the failing health of the founder chairman was not allowing him to be actively involved in the hospital activities. Being a member of both the Trust and the Society, he was managing the interests of both groups in the hospital. In view of his decreased role, the problem of developing new interlocking mechanisms between the Trust and the Society was surfacing. 

Financing Strategy at Tata Steel

Rajesh Haldipur, Kulbir Singh and S. R. Vishwanath

In January 2011 Tata Steel Ltd, a world-size steel company in India and a flagship company of the $80b Tata Group, announced an issue of equity to the investing public through a book-building process. This was one of the many securities that the company issued during 2007-2011. The company would raise Rs 34,770m and Rs 33,850m from the issue at the upper and lower ends of the price band. The case opens with an analyst studying the company’s financial condition with the objective of making an investment recommendation. 
Students are asked to evaluate the attractiveness of the offer and its timing apart from undertaking an analysis of the historical choice of securities. The case can be used to teach students capital structure theories, the thought process behind security issuance, the dynamic nature of finance, and the role of a CFO and valuation analysis.

Wuan Chuang: A 100-Year-Old Soy Sauce Producer Moving into the Next Century

Chiung-Hui Tseng

Wuan Chuang Food Industrial Corporation was founded in 1909 and is the longest lasting brand of soy sauce in Taiwan. Along its evolution into what it is today, this small and medium-sized enterprise had adjusted its focus between black-bean and soybean soy sauce businesses. The former is a traditional Taiwanese soy sauce that requires a lengthy, naturally-brewed process and tremendous manual works. In turn, black-bean soy sauce can only be produced in a small volume and charges premium prices. The latter, introduced to Taiwan in 1940s, is a Japanese-style soy sauce that can be produced massively in machine-controlled, giant tanks, and is dominated by large firms who compete sharply on prices. This case delineates Wuan Chuang’s growth path and the nature of the soy sauce industry in Taiwan. The stage is set for students to discuss Wuan Chuang’s strategic orientations and whether the directions of its actions fit with its competitive strengths.

Birlasoft Inc. – Sales Force Automation at Crisis: Software as a Service (SaaS) or Software as a Product (SaaP) (A) & (B)

Shilpi Jain and Mahadeo P Jaiswal

Case (A) 
Birlasoft, a Global IT major, had been facing massive challenges in monitoring its sales force spread over 20 global locations. Owing to the strong client base spread all over the world and the massive sales force, the organization needed to focus on a more efficient sales tracking system. Ravi Kathuria, Senior Vice president – Global Marketing & Alliances of Birlasoft was keen to align the organization’s dispersed sales force through Sales Force Automation (SFA) system. In this context, SFA was expected to provide transparency and clear visibility of the sales pipeline. There was also an expectation that SFA would help in improving efficiency of global sales force in terms of reporting and customer analysis. At first, the organization decided to implement a home grown sales force automation system, which turned out be a failure, owing to both internal and external factors. This led Kathuria to explore other options which could meet their system requirements and could be implemented in shorter time frames with minimum budget. They evaluated multiple options and are debating on which system to opt for. 
This case examines the various software delivery methods in the decision on new software procurement. Several software and vendor parameters and the analytical structure and process for evaluating software vendors are included for consideration. This case underlines an innovation which has introduced a complete paradigm shift in information application acquisition, that is, instead of buying software as a product, organizations are increasingly procuring it as a service.
Case (B) 
Following from Case A, the team in Birlasoft appraised multiple options and the majority of the team members were inclined towards SaaS-based SFA. This case discusses various processes and parameters considered by Birlasoft while deciding on a new software vendor.

Tenaga Nasional Berhad

John Antony Xavier and Yazmin Islahudin

This case study deals with strategic management issues. Based on documentary sources, the case examines the dilemma confronting the CEO of Tenaga Nasional Bhd. (TNB) as he explores options to revive the flagging fortunes of the company. The case ends with Dato’ Seri Che Khalib contemplating going nuclear to meet the burgeoning power needs of the country.  Given its monopoly position, TNB cannot raise its tariffs without government approval and the government had always been conservative in approving such increases in tariffs. TNB has to contend with purchasing power from the independent power producers (IPPs) at high prices. It also had to contend with fluctuating supplies of gas, albeit at subsidized prices, to fire its power plants. The case study highlights factors from which strategies could be formulated to ensure the sustainability of TNB’s operations. It also highlights the issues pertaining to industry regulations and how TNB seeks to overcome such policy constraints to ensure its sustainability.

MicroPort Scientific: An Odyssey Starting with Coronary Stents

Zhang Wei, Xu Leiping and Hang Hongli

With the aim of illustrating an innovation model in an emerging market, this case summarizes the successful launch of drug-eluting stents at MicroPort and the development of innovation capabilities and culture within the company. The case also demonstrates a strategic dilemma after one round of effective technology innovation and, more important, the role of understanding the value system to health care in sustaining innovation.

Mamma Mia! Made in China – Challenges in Developing the Musical Industry

Terence Tsai and Shubo Liu

This case is about how United Asia Live Entertainment Co. Ltd. (United Asia), a real Chinese production and marketing company and a commercial arm of the Ministry of Culture, localized a popular global product, Mamma Mia!, to compete with other international and local firms during the period when the Government was pushing the reform of the cultural industry. 
Mamma Mia! is the first-ever Western musical without roots in the Chinese culture, being presented in Chinese (Mandarin) by an entire Chinese cast in China. United Asia staged the translated version with the creative team of the original musical. This case describes how United Asia faced and overcame many obstacles, including talent shortage, uncertain customer expectations and immature industrial clusters while it was preparing for the first show. The production turned out to be a big success. Although United Asia planned to launch more Western musicals in Chinese, the company aspired to go beyond introducing only copyrighted musicals and to create original musicals. This case leads to the reflection and discussion on what the company, as a groundbreaker in China’s new musical industry, should do next and how to sustain its competitive advantages.

GranuLab: Strategies for Growth

Khairul Akmaliah Adham, Mohd Fuaad Said, Saida Farhanah Sarkam and Nur Sa’adah Muhamad

GranuLab Sdn. Bhd. (GranuLab) was in the business of manufacturing patented synthetic bone graft substitute made from limestones and pure chemicals called GranuMaS. The bone graft substitute industry in Malaysia was a growing market with many large multinational players. In December 2010, the company began selling GranuMaS to several Malaysian hospitals. It had also completed the construction of its new production facility in Shah Alam, about 30 km from Malaysia’s capital city of Kuala Lumpur. With the facility’s pending operation in January 2011, the company had to find ways to leverage its high-volume production capacity. GranuLab’s approval for the CE Mark certification for GranuMaS’ exporting as well as the ISO certification to operate as an OEM contract manufacturing provider were still pending. Therefore, it was unable to export GranuMaS to Europe and other international markets, forcing the company to restrict its sales within Malaysia. Each day, the need to bring in revenue from sales of GranuMaS was mounting for Mr. Romli Ishak, the Managing Director of GranuLab particularly with the manufacturing facility due to begin its operation soon. Mr. Romli and his management team began to ponder on the appropriate strategies to adopt in order to achieve the company’s objective of high profitability. This teaching case is designed to stimulate discussion regarding strategic posturing of a young medical device company with aspirations for high growth.

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